NEPA21 Electro-Kinetic Transfection Systems

Versatile Electroporators for in Vivoin Vitro and Much More

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High efficiency and high viability without special buffers
The most popular transfection procedures all require specialized chemicals, which are costly—as much as $8, $12, or even $16 or more per sample! These additives can have unwanted effects on cells; at the very best, they create another parameter to be dealt with. Though poking holes in cell membranes has been done for many years, no protocols exist for high efficiency transfections without the use of such reagents. That is, not until the NEPA21. Nepa Gene has created THE most sophisticated apparatus for delivering DNA and RNA to cells—and all that’s needed are the electrodes. With a combination of low voltage short-and-long pulses and reversing polarities, a huge variety of cells, tissues, and even whole organisms can be transfected with amazingly high efficiencies. This patented pulsing technology has been shown to be both superior to and far more flexible than other techniques. Relying upon unique non-capacitor driven pulsing, the NEPA21 works at low voltages to deliver with no degradation.   with the NEPA21 are often far better than those with cheaper models, especially when it matters most. And because everything works at low voltages, cytotoxic effects are nearly eliminated! about the secrets behind NEPA21’s proprietary pulsing technology below.

In vitro transfection of suspension, adherent, and primary cells
The NEPA 21 utilizes one of two electrode types to deliver nucleic acids to live cells in culture. The first type, inexpensive electroporation cuvettes, can be used on suspension cells without the need for expensive buffering conditions with unknown additives. Just add cells and pulse–then save time and money. For adherent cells, use a special for 2-dimensional electro-kinetic transfer of RNA and DNA. . In defiance of conventional wisdom, the patented electric pulsing pricks channels not just in the plasma membrane, but the nuclear envelope as well—allowing DNA to be transported into the cell nucleus for efficacious transfection results with , , and .

In vivo transfection in mice and rats
The NEPA21 works with a plethora of electrodes that puts Dr. Frankenstein to shame. These specialized tools can be used to gently pulse organs and tissues in live animals, carrying DNA and RNA molecules directly into the cells that make up these tissues. These tools allow previously difficult or impossible transfection experiments to be executed, opening new avenues of scientific inquiry. Transfections have been positively performed on muscle, skin, liver, kidney, testis, ovary, brain, retina, cornea, and others in mice and rats. Click on the following tissue types to see the specific electrodes and protocols designed for each: brain, retina, muscle, skin and testis. And if you need to study tissue outside of the organism, the NEPA21 is also amenable to ex vivo transfer of nucleic acids to a variety of tissue types such as brain, cochlear tissue, or organoids.

In utero, ex utero, and in ovo transfections for developmental studies
Nepa Gene has developed tools and techniques for transfecting embryonic tissues–or even whole embryos!–in mice, rats, and chickens. Whether it’s specific regions in a mouse embryonic brain (click for a movie), chicken cortex, or chicken gastro regions, we can provide a protocol and an electrode set. The flexibility is almost limitless; these electrodes have been adopted for use with a variety of other animals and plants including honey bee, xenopus, and even plant seeds. Give us a call to discuss the options in more detail.

Click to see a complete list of data for suspension cells, adherent cells, or in vivo/in utero/in ovo/ex vivo electroporation applications (supplier website).

Click here to see available electrodes for in vivo, in utero, in ovo and ex vivo applications.

Additional Information

This figure compares actual output voltages of samples (in 2 mm electroporation cuvettes) as measured on a Tektronix oscilloscope. The NEPA21 (Panel A) and a premium-brand electroporator (Panel B) performed identical pulsing parameters under varying levels of resistance. All other electroporation systems use capacitor-driven pulsing. This technology can work well under low ionic conditions, as represented by the high resistance (1000 ohm) at the top of panel B. But only the NEPA21’s proprietary design can maintain true “square wave” voltage deliveries under lower resistance (200 and 50 ohm) conditions. This is representative of electroporation in saline conditions (such as PBS), which results in improved cell viability and more consistent transfection efficiencies.

Using 2 mm cuvettes, 5 µg of pCAGGS-eGFP was used to electroporate 1 x 106ES cells in suspension. The results combined much higher cell viability with a 5-fold greater transfection efficiency (68% vs 14%) using the NEPA21 (column A) vs a popular competing instrument (column B).

The NEPA21 Transfecton System’s 4-step pulse with voltage decay results in higher transfection efficiency and lower cell damage without the use of special buffers.

Step 1 – Poring Pulse: High voltage, short duration, multiple pulses, voltage decay.

The poring pulse is for forming small holes in the cell membrane with minimal damage.

Step 2 – Poring Pulse Reverse Polarity: This increases efficiency with adherent cells and other types of transfections.

Step 3 – Transfer Pulse: Low voltage, long duration, multiple pulses, voltage decay.

The transfer pulse is for delivering the target molecules (DNA, RNA, etc.). Like low voltage electrophoresis, these extra-long pulses carry charged molecules into cells with minimal damage.

Step 2 – Transfer Pulse Reverse Polarity: This increases efficiency with suspension cells, adherent cells, and other types of transfections by 10-30%.

Viability – 80%

Transfection Efficiency – 83%

Primary Cell Viability (V) and Transformation Efficiency (TE) with the NEPA21 Electro-Kinetic Transfection System

Data below shows disease-specific iPSC generation (disease: LQT) – transfection of multiple episomal plasmids into B cells

NEPA21 Electro-Kinetic Transfection Systems

Popular Electrodes - Please see our electrode page for full menu


In Vitro Electroporation (suspension cells)

Adherent Cell Electroporation (not trypsinized)

In Vivo Zygote Electroporation

In Utero Embryo Electroporation

Pulse details Square-wave, direct current (DC)
# pulsing phases Up to 4
Types of pulses Poring and Transfer
# of poring pulses 0-9
# of transfer pulses 0-99
Decaying pulses Yes
Reverse polarity Yes
Impedance readout Yes
Total energy readout Yes, in Joules
Power Requirements AC100-240V 50/60Hz
Size 346(W) x 330(D) x113(H) mm
Weight 7.5 kg
Warranty 2 Year